Frankfurt's Book Fair swapped long queues for livestreams in an unprecedented first for the event which is being held amid the coronavirus pandemic.
The hall exhibition, a mainstay for the last seven decades, was among several components which organisers cancelled from September. Instead, online events such as digital conferences will heavily feature this year.
Juergen Boos, who heads the Book Fair, said that 90% of the fair will be held virtually, while "small groups of people" would be allowed to attend remaining events across the city. In total, 4400 digital exhibitors from 110 countries have registered for 2020's book fair.